History of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence was founded in ancient Greek myths. Aristotle’s first gave an idea of artificial intelligence and robots by developing syllogism.
History of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence was founded in ancient Greek myths. Aristotle’s first gave an idea of artificial intelligence and robots by developing syllogism. As we know, the history of AI’s roots is very long, but the first and essential journey starts with less than a century. And recently, the concept of AI is prevalent, and many scientists were nowadays working hard to develop this sector. Seeing the progress of Artificial Intelligent, we can predict, the future of the world is slightly going into AI’s hand.
Walter Pitts and Warren McCullough (1943):
The two scientists, Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts, publish, “Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity.” This research paper first proposed the neural network by the mathematic model.
Hebbian realized a book named, “The Organization of Behavior: The Theory of Neuropsychological.” The theory of neural pathways processed by Donald Hebb and, he was able to make connections between neurons. He said neurons become stronger if they are in continuous work. And his data and theory are now an essential model in artificial Intelligent.
From 1950 to 1951:
“Computing Machinery and intelligence,” a book published by Alan Turing, which is now known as the Turing Test. This method is now used to determining and calculating machine intelligent. Dean Edmonds and Marvin Minsky, undergraduate of Harvard University, build SNARC computer; it is the world’s first neural network computer. “Programming a Computer for Playing Chess,” Claude Shannon published this paper. Isaac Asimov published three Law of Robotics.
Arthur Samuel (1952):
Arthur Samuel developed the first automatic play checkers.
In the year of 1954, the selected 60 Russian sentences translate into English by the Georgetown-IBM computer.
John McCarthy (1954):
Artificial Intelligence is first used in the “Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” This project led John McCarthy. This project defined and set the goals of the future AI, which is now known as the bean of the artificial intelligence we know it now. Herbert Simon and Allen Newell first came with the first reasoning program, which is, Logic Theorist or LT.
AI Language (1958):
John McCarthy published the paper “Program with Common Sense” after developed the AI programming Language “Lisp.” It was proposed the hypothetical Advice Taker, which is very useful to learn from experience as humans do. This system was a complete AI system.
General Problem Solver (1959):
J.C Shaw, Allen Newell, and Herbert developed a program that designed to imitate the problem-solving of humans. In that year, the geometry Theorem prover program was developed by Herbert Gelernter. Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy developed the Artificial Intelligence Project at MIT.
AI Lab (1963):
In the year of 1963, John McCarthy established the AI Lab at Stanford.
The full form of ALPAC is, “Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee” was formed by the U.S government, a lack of process in translating machine language research. It was the reason for created a cold war. After this, the ALPAC leads to stopped all government-funded MT project.
Medical helper (1969):
The expert system designed to diagnose blood infections was successfully developed in DENDRAL, a program of XX, along with MYCIN. This program was developed at Stanford. In the year of 1972, PROLOG, a programming language, was created.
Light hill Report (1973):
AI research called “Light hill Report” was published by the British government in 1973.
First AI Winter (1974_1980):
Frustration of the AI development and research, artificial intelligence research funding dropped. This period is known as the “first AI Winter.”
Commercial System (1980):
Digital Equipment Corporations developed the first successful commercial expert system known as R1 (also known as XCON). This system again boomed Investment in the AI sector and came to an end the first AI winter.
Japanese Investment (1982):
International Tarde and Industry of Japan Ministry first launch the fifth-generation computer system project in late 1982. This project was targeted for the super-computer like performance. That creates a platform for AI developers.
U.S AI Development (1983):
By seeing the Japanese FGCS project, U.S launched “DARPA.”
Companies Interest (1985):
In the late ’80s, many companies come forward and invest more than billion-dollar in developing a commercial expert system, and the Lisp machine market-inspired those companies to go ahead. Lisp Machines Inc and Symbolic companies build some computers to run those AI programming languages.
From 1987 to 1999:
The Lisp machine market collapsed in 1987 because of improved computing technology and cheaper alternatives machine. This is the reason for the second “AI Winter.” In this period, advance expert system maintenance expenses go very high. It is falling out of the fever. In the year 1992, the Japanese project and FGCS and in 1993 U.S projects end the strategic computing initiative after spending about 1 billion dollars. In the year of 1991, during the Gulf War, the U.S force deploys DART. It is an automated logistics scheduling and logistics tool. 1997 world chess champion “Gary Kasparov” defied by IBM’s Deep Blue program.
A self-driving car named Stanley, successfully passed the DARPA Grand Challenge. And Military force of the U.S starts to invest money in war robots such as “Packo” and “Big Dog.”
AI Assistant (2011):
Google and apple corporation introduce their AI assistant called “Siri” and “OK Google.”
Neural Networks and Google (from 2012 to 2016):
The founder of Google’s brain deep learning project “Andrew Ng” worked on a neural network by using learning algorithms that can recognize a cat by seeing YouTube videos without being told what cat is. In the year 2014, Google corporation first make a self-driving car that passed the state driving test. In 2016 Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo loos the world champion of Go Player “Lee Sedol.