History of Psychological Science
Psychology is the problem of human being. A child response to insults because of genetics and after some time later child run by his brain and from then the psychology starts.
History of Psychological Science
First Era of Psychology
- 387 BC - Thinking for psychology started many years ago. The ancient Greeks researched on which organ controls the mechanism of mental processes. According to Plato, it was the brain.
- 335 BC - Aristotle was not ready to accept Plato’s idea. His suggestion was the heart controls the mechanism of mental processes, not the brain.
- 1774 - The term ‘mesmerism’ was named after Franz Mesmer, a German physician. It is a therapeutic and also known as hypnosis today. He expressed his idea about an invisible fluid in the human body reacts to the attraction of other planet’s gravitation. One of the ‘animal magnetism’ helped him to revise his theory of ‘animal gravitation in 1775. The invisible fluid abides by the laws of magnetism was proven by this theory.
- 1793 - French physician, Philippe Pinel was famous for his more humane practice in treating mentally ill patients. He released the first mental patients from confinement. It was the first massive movement for more humane treatment. He was the first to take initiative to establish ‘moral therapy’.
- 1808 - Phrenology is the idea that relates a person’s skull shape and placement of bumps on the head with revealing personality traits.
- 1834 - Ernst Heinrich Weber is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. He published a theory named ‘Just Noticeable Difference.’ Today, we know this theory as Weber’s Law.
- 1848 - Phineas Gage was a railway construction worker who had accidental brain damage. An iron pole pierces his brain and damages the left portion. It changed his personality but his intellect remained intact. His accident suggests that the personality of a person depends on a specific part of the brain.
- 1859 - Before the publication of Charles Darwin’s book, ‘The Origin of Species’ people had a different view of life. The book was highly controversial because it rejected many religious beliefs at that time. His idea of evolution in which apes are human forefather proved untrue by modern scientists. But animals change themselves in the changing environment, reproduce and thus continue their existence is proven. His book helped to the development of psychology.
- 1861 - Paul Broca, a French physician discovered the importance of the brain in language development. An area in the left frontal lobe plays a key role. The area is now known as the ‘Broca area.”
- 1869 - Charles Darwin’s ‘Origin of the Species,’ influenced Sir Francis Galton. He applied statistical methods by collecting data on human communities. His survey and questioners paved the way for him to publish ‘Hereditary Genius.’ The intellectual abilities of humans are biological in nature is proven.
- 1874 - After Paul Broca’s success, Carl Wernicke researched more on language deficits caused by brain damage. His research proves that only the ‘Broca area’ is not responsible for language adaption. Damage to the left posterior, superior temporal gyrus can also do it. This area is named after him as Wernicke's area.
- 1878 - G. Stanley Hall was the first to receive the first American Ph.D. in psychology. Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology in 1887.
- 1879 - Wilhelm Wundt distinguished psychology as a different science from biology and philosophy. The first experimental psychology lab was founded by him in Leipzig, Germany. It was dedicated to the study of structuralism. It is the starting point of psychology as a separate science.
- 1883 - The experimental psychology lab at John Hopkins University was the first one in the USA.
G. Stanley Hall opens it.
- 1885 - Herman Ebbinghaus's name will be always remembered in the experimental study of memory.
In his seminal "Über das Gedächtnis" ("On Memory") he describes learning and memory experiments he conducted on himself.
- 1886 - Sigmund Freud was the father of psychoanalysis. It is a treating process by dialogues between the patient and the psychoanalyst. He starts offering therapy to patients in Vienna, Austria. free association and discovered transference are some of his other therapeutic techniques.
- 1888 - James McKeen Cattell is a famous American psychologist who becomes the first professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. He publishes "Mental Tests and Measurements" that marks the advent of psychological assessment.
- 1890 - William James publishes "Principles of Psychology." Sir Francis Galton establishes correlation techniques to better understand the relationships between variables in intelligence studies.
- 1892 - G. Stanley Hall was the founder of the American Psychological Association enlisting 42 members and was its first president in 1892.
- 1895 - Alfred Binet also contributed to the development of experimental psychology by forming the first psychology lab devoted to psychodiagnostic.
- 1898 - Edward Thorndike spent most of the early years working on comparative psychology and the learning process. He establishes the theory of ‘connectionism’ leading to the foundation for educational psychology. He also develops the Law of Effect.
Notable Milestones in Surgical History
- 1900 - Sigmund Freud publishes his outstanding work "Interpretation of Dreams." This book interprets dreams and introduces his theory of the unconscious.
- 1901 - The British Psychological Society starts its journey at University College London with ten founding members.
- 1905 - Woman empowerment sees the path in the field of psychology when Mary Whiton Calkins is elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association. Alfred Binet introduces the first intelligence test or IQ test to find out students’ capabilities.
- 1906 - Classical conditioning was the subject of interest for Ivan Pavlov. He publishes his research based on it.
- 1907 - Carl Jung was an assistant to Sigmund Freud and he was supposed to be the leader in this field after Freud. But his acquired knowledge forbade him to believe Freud’s doctrines. So, they were separated from each other. He published his great work "The Psychology of Dementia Praecox."
- 1912 - Edward Thorndike worked on animal behavior. His learning from this observation leads him to the theory of connectionism. He publishes his "Animal Intelligence" that leads to the development of the theory of operant conditioning. At the same time, Max Wertheimer comes with his "Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement" leading to the development of Gestalt psychology.
- 1913 - Carl Jung developed his doctrines regarding psychology which clashes with the Freudian view. So, he departs from Freud to develop his own theory in analytical psychology. John B. Watson’s research on the concept of behaviorism is illustrated in his "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views."
- 1915 - Moving away from ‘hypnosis’, Freud started to work on his patients’ remembrance of the past in a conscious state. But he noticed that it is a difficult process as some force stopped the patients to recall their past. He named this force ‘Repression.’ He publishes his work on repression.
- 1920 - John B. Watson with his graduate assistant Rosalie Rayner worked on classical conditioning at Johns Hopkins University. Little Albert was a baby and their subject of the experiment. They tried to figure out when and how fear arouses in this research. They publish the results in the Journal of Experimental Psychology.
- 1932 - Jean Piaget was interested in what children think also known as moral reasoning. "The Moral Judgment of Children", the book by him is the ultimate result of his findings.
- 1942 - Carl Rogers is one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy. His unique idea to practice client-centered therapy was useful to understand personality and human relationships. It assures honor and positive regard for patients.
- 1952 - The American Psychiatric Association published the first “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.” It is considered to be a standard for the classification of mental disorders.
- 1954 - Abraham Maslow is best known for his theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. His
"Motivation and Personality" describes this theory. He is also among the founders who worked on humanistic psychology.
- 1958 - Harry Harlow researches dependency needs and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys. His "The Nature of Love" describes the importance of attachment and love in them.
- 1961 - Albert Bandura contributes to the fields of psychology like social cognitive theory, therapy, and personality psychology. The transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology was also his interest. His Bobo doll experiment relates to child behavior is very famous now. It is a construct of observation, imitation, and modeling.
- 1963 - Bandura worked on explaining personality development. He was the first to describe the concept of observational learning.
- 1974 - Stanley Milgram is famous for his controversial obedience experiments. He publishes "Obedience to Authority" describing the findings of his research.
- 1980 - The DSM-III is published.
- 1990 - The versatile genius, Noam Chomsky is called the father of modern linguistics. He publishes "On Nature, Use, and Acquisition of Language" in 1990.
- 1991 - Steven Pinker is a cognitive psychologist and linguist. An article by him introduces his theories about how children acquire language. This article was published in the book "The Language Instinct" later.
- 1994 - The DSM-IV is published.
The 2000 Century to Recent Past
- 2000 - After finishing the mapping of the human genes, the genetic researchers were able to isolate the individual chromosome which is responsible for mental dysfunction.
- 2002 - "The Blank Slate" by Steven Pinker is an argument against the concept of ‘tabula rasa.’ Tabula rasa means our mind is a blank slate at birth. A child response to insults because of genetics. Avashalom Caspi was the first to take it as evidence. Psychologist Daniel Kahneman n how judgments are made in the face of uncertainty. He is awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics for his discovery.
- 2010 - Simon LeVay studies brain structure and sexual orientation. He researched on homosexual and heterosexual men. Then he publishes "Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why." It argues that sexual orientation emerges from prenatal differentiation in the brain.
- 2013 - The DSM-V is released. The APA removes "gender identity disorder" from the list of mental illnesses is the most notable thing in it. The organization replaces it to "gender dysphoria" to describe a person's discomfort with his or her gender.
- 2014 - John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology. They discovered cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.