Earth's Magnetism Or Geomagnetism
As many of you may know, a magnet can only be affected by one magnet. It can be attraction or repulsion. Many may not agree with me, saying that iron can affect a magnet. But the truth is, iron can't directly affect a magnet. When iron is brought into the magnetic field of a magnet, the iron itself acquires some magnetism in that magnetic field, and the part of the iron that is near the pole of the magnet acts as the opposite pole of that pole of the magnet. As a result, iron is attracted by the magnet.
Two proofs can be shown. E.g.-
If you hang a magnet bar freely, it is located along the north-south pole of the earth. If you put a piece of iron on the ground for a long time, you will see that the iron has become a bit magnetic. As I said before, a magnet can only be affected by a magnet.
So where did this change or behavior of the magnet come from?
Which magnet forced the hanging magnet to stay along the north-south?
Which magnet turned iron into a magnet?
The answer is a bit simple but also complex. That is the world. The earth is of course a huge magnetic field. Which is affecting another magnet. What we call geomagnetism.
Our earth itself is a huge magnetic field, whose north pole is towards the north and the south pole to the south. So when we hang a magnet freely, its north pole is on the south side of the earth and its south pole is along the north side of the earth.
Meanwhile, when a metal comes in contact with this huge magnetic field, that metal actually turns into a magnet.
The direction of the geomagnet but not exactly along the geographical north-south. There are some deviations here. This geomagnet has three components. E.g.-
The angle that the hanging bar magnet generates horizontally along the geographical axis is the angle of deflection of the bar magnet anywhere.
The angle that the hanging bar magnet generates perpendicular to the geographical axis is the angle of inclination of the bar magnet anywhere.
The horizontal component of magnetism
Since the direction of the geomagnet is not directly along the geographical axis, the component we find along the horizontal of the geomagnet is its horizontal component.
These three elements of geomagnetism play a much more important role anywhere in the world. Through this, all the data of geomagnetism of any place can be known.