Genetics, Reproduction Process

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms

Genetics, Reproduction Process
DNA testing

Genetics, Reproduction Process


Genetics is a part of Biology with the topics of heredity, variation, genes and genetic. The Genetics is all about organisms. Gregor Mendel the 19th century scientist first to study genetics scientifically.

The primary principles of genetics in the 21st century is Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance but the modern genetics has gone beyond inheritance to studying the behavior and function of genes. Genes genetics and variation, function and structure are now studied with the cell context, the organism and population of the context. Some parts of genetics are molecular genetics, epigenetics and population genetics.

With the experiences to influence development, behavior and an organism’s environment genetic processes work. The extracellular or intracellular environment of organism or living cell may switch transcription off or on.


Molecular Genetics

We know that in chromosomes genes are live, chromosomes are made with protein and DNA, but scientist did not know what is the reason for inheritance. In 1928 the phenomenon of transformation was discovered by Frederick Griffith. Which are dead bacteria could transfer gens to other still living bacteria. In 1944 the Avery, MacLeod, McCarty identified DNA as molecule are responsible for transformation of gens. In 1943 Hammering established the role of the nucleus as the repository of genetic information in eukaryotes. In 1952 the Hershey, Chase experiment proved that DNA is the molecule responsible for inheritance. James Watson and Francis Crick first explain the structure of DNA. Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins discover that DNA has a helical structure by using X-Ray. Double helix model has two strands of DNA, nucleotides are inward pointing, which is look like twisted ladder. From than scientist is came to know that in every sequence of nucleotide genetic information exists. This structure also suggests the replication method.

The structure of DNA showed inheritance work. But still don’t know the behavior of cells influences by DNA. Scientists then tried to discover how DNA controls the process of protein production. To create matching messenger RNA cell use DNA as a template. The genetic code is made of nucleotides sequences and amino acid.

Gregor Mendel, studied the segregation of heritable traits in pea plants says, “At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs by passing discrete heritable units, called gens, from parents to offspring.” In his experiments Gregor Mendel observed that the flower of pea plant either white or purple but never intermediate between those colors. It is called the Alleles the discrete versions of the same genes.


DNA and Chromosome

Deoxyribonucleic Acid is called DNA. DNA is a chain of nucleotide, which are four type. Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and cytosine. Without a host and unaffected by many genetic process Viruses cannot reproduce, living organisms tend not to be considered. DNA are normally found in double stranded shape, coiled into double helix.

In DNA every nucleotide pairs with its partner nucleotide on the opposite strand. The nucleotide has some pairs like T, C and G and so on. Each strand of nucleotide effectively contains all information which are necessary. This is the inheritance of physical basis of DNA structure.



Reproduction is a process by which organisms replace themselves between two organisms. Dividing of two cells is called Reproduction. When cells divide the genome is copied each daughter cell and the daughter cell remain the same as the prominent of father cell. The offspring which are genetically identical to their parents are named clone. In 1882 Walther Flemming’s came to know about eukaryotic cell division. He said, “Chromosomes are copied, condenses and organized. Then, as the cell divides, chromosome copies separated into the daughter cells.” For sexual reproduction Eukaryotic organism often use.