Genetically Modified (GM) Food
Next level of the agricultural revolution
Genetically Modified (GM) Food.
The agricultural revolution was one of the most significant events in the history of human civilization, when our predecessors started farming-main social life, abandoning fishing and hunting. Artificial breeding is an excellent tool for increasing the yield to feed the civilization. We have chosen today's paddy or maize tree for our own needs from weeds. Then gradually, our population numbers and requirements have increased. Fertilizers or chemical fertilizers, which have come to increase yields in agriculture, are kinds of fossil fuels stored beneath the ground and today they are almost at an end. As a result, food security is a significant problem for us today.
Naturally, many scientists around the world are thinking about this. They have come a long way in discovering something new, such as biological nitrogen-fixing (BNF) or genetically modified food (GM food). The content of this article is GM Food.
What is GM food and how does It create?
Genetically Modified Foods (GM Foods) are the only foods or plants that we make changes to our needs. The body of all organisms is made up of many cells. Each cell contains DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid / DNA). A DNA molecule is made up of two long chains that are stacked around it. One part of this DNA chain, which contains instructions for building a particular protein, is a gene. The genes within this DNA control all the genes, structures and functions of the organism. However, they do nothing directly. For this, the RNA and the protein retrieve the work. The fact that the parents have similarities with the look of their sons and daughters is also a game of genes. In the case of trees' growth, yield, ability to survive in low rainfall, protection from harmful germs are the characteristics that the genes control.
The Green Revolution introduced in the Indian subcontinent in 1970 by employing such a feature. A few years before that, Nobel laureate Norman E. Borlaug discovered the "dwarf trait" of wheat. When planting a lot of grain on a tall wheat tree, the weight of the wheat tree would easily overturn it. As a result, a lot of wheat wasted in the field. To eliminate this Dr Borlaug finds "dwarf" wheat plants whose shoots are small, sturdy, and have good yields. He invented the artificial breeding tool. Then this discovery also done in paddy trees. The application of these inventions led to the Green Revolution of 1970 in the Indian subcontinent. Much later research suggests that the "dwarf trait" actually it control by genes. Now the impact of the Green Revolution has significantly diminished due to rapid population growth and reduced agricultural land. So, new ways to increase yields need to invent. Genetically Modified Food (GM Food) is one of the modern ways to improve this yield. The genes of a plant are changed by inserting the genes of another organism (plant, virus or bacterium) into its DNA. In nature, gene transfer is always occurring from bacteria to plants or from one tree to another.
In the lab, researchers create genetically modified plants in a controlled way through a beneficial bacterium called "Agrobacterium". One of the characteristics of Agrobacterium is its ability to transfer genes. Put, they are a kind of carrier. The genes that regulate the excellent properties of the tree (such as the dwarf trait gene) discovered for a long time, which inserted into Agrobacterium cells first time.
Then, with the modified Agrobacterium, those genes inserted into the body to improve one of their properties, so that they can protect them from germs or produce higher yields. However, there are some problems. For example, when a gene enters the body of a tree with the help of Agrobacterium, the infiltration of the gene can occur a very successful event in any cell. As a result, many times, the functional effects of genetic variation can reduce. Again, using genetically modified plants for Agrobacterium, it takes 7-9 years to market them. Also, that is why more advanced technologies, such as gene editing, have arrived. Gene editing is now able to produce genetically modified foods more easily.