From Father of Zoology to Present
Hippocrates, the Greek physician is the father of Zoology. Now a Days its becoming more advance.
Timeline of Zoology
Hippocrates, the Greek physician, developed anatomical and physiological knowledge. His knowledge got upgraded in the Renaissance when the scientists of that period understood his valuable work. As he devised the code of medical ethics, we remember him as the father of medicine. The oath before taking the medical profession is named after him as a tribute to his efforts.
Aristotle is the founder of zoology as a science. This Greek philosopher contributed much to zoology along with some other major fields. Many modern standards do not agree to praise him but his contributions to zoology are immense and undeniable for sure. At first, he tried to classify animals based on their blood color; red or not. He classified the red colored animals as vertebrates and the animals with other color blood as cephalopods. He is the first to recognize the similarities between humans and apes.
The Roman researcher, Galen worked for the development of anatomy and physiology. His clear concept of scientific method was praiseworthy. Students considered him as the highest authority for centuries for his mastery in anatomical and physiological subjects.
From 1300’s to Now
1347 - An English philosopher, William of Occam left his footprint in logic, physics, and theology. But we know him best for his Occam’s Razor. This is a principle that states we should not choose a hypothesis that creates differences. Rather, we should choose a hypothesis that makes the fewest new assumptions.
1543 - Andreas Vesalius is the first to interpret the modern anatomical structure. All his research was illustrated in his book ‘On the Structure of the Human Body’. People often refer to him as the father of modern anatomy.
1665 - Robert Hooke He used a microscope to have a deep look at a piece of cork. He sees many tiny chambers there and names them “Cells”. In his book Micrographia, he publishes cells, fleas, and other small creatures' sketches.
1686 - John Ray, an English naturalist published his works on botany, zoology, and natural theology. ‘Historia Plantarum’ is a book where he has classified plants. The publication of this book. In 1686 was an influential step towards modern taxonomy. He provided a biological definition of the term species for the first time.
1745 - Charles Bonnet at first discovers natural parthenogenesis or virginal reproduction. It is a process of offspring development with only one parent. It is the only way of reproduction for some lower life. This process can also determine the sex of other living beings.
1758 - We know Carolus Linnaeus best for his classifying the animal kingdom. In his ‘Systema Natura’ he classified every species from botany to zoology. He classified them by maintaining their genera followed by their orders and classes. He observed the distinctive characteristics and then classified them according to their similarities.
1801 - J B de Lamarck was a French naturalist who had at first the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Lamarckism or soft inheritance is his theory gaining him popularity. It is a theory of inheritance.
1826 - Popularly known as the founder of comparative anatomy and vertebrate paleontology,
Georges Cuvier worked with fossils for the advancement of paleontology. He built a system of a zoological classification system comprising four phyla. In 1826, France honored him with the most senior order, the Legion of Honour.
1859 - Before the publication of Charles Darwin’s book, ‘The Origin of Species’ people had a different view of life. The book was highly controversial because it rejected many religious beliefs at that time. His idea of evolution that apes are human forefather proved untrue by modern scientists. But animals change themselves in the changing environment, reproduce and thus continue their existence is proven.
1860 - Thomas Henry Huxley was an ardent follower of Charles Darwin and he described Darwin’s theory of evolution according to his research. The famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce is an important moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Besides, his original research in paleontology and zoology is useful too.
1881 - Edward Blyth was an English zoologist who enriched zoology with his research on birds. ‘The natural history of the Cranes” is a book by him published posthumously in 1881. His research was fruitful as some of the species are named after him like Blyth's Hawk-eagle, Blyth's Reed Warbler, Southern Blyth's Leaf-Warbler and Blyth's Pipit, etc.
1892 - August Weismann, a German evolutionary biologist's main contribution involved germ plasm theory, at one time also known as Weismannist. This theory states that inheritance is possible in the germ cells like egg cells and sperm cells. Somatic cells remain neutral in this process.
He is the second most influential evolutionary theorist after Darwin in the 19th century.
1918 - Ernest Starling, a British physiologist attempted some glaring efforts in this field successfully. He discovered a balance between hydrostatic pressure on the wall and osmotic pressure of plasma proteins which is now known as the Starling Principle. He also introduced the word ‘Hormone’.
Another and maybe the best work of him is the Frank-Starling law that proves the heart works as a pump.
1951 - Rachel Louise Carson, an American marine biologist, and conservationist wrote some books like Silent Spring and many more. Her works advanced the global environmental movement.
She became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her bestseller book ‘The Sea Around Us’ was published in 1951 and awarded a U.S. National Book Award.
1952 - Joseph Erlanger and H.S. Gasser discovered differential conduction of nerve impulses. The brain reads and receives many different nerve impulses. The nerve cell’s thickness and thinness work as pathways to the impulses.
1960 - UN’s Messenger of Peace, Dame Jane Morris Goodall is a British woman who worked as a primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. For his 55 years of study, he is considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees who started her research on them in Tanzania in 1960. She founded the ‘Jane Goodall Institute’ in 1977 and the ‘Roots & Shoots program’ in 1990. The motto of these institutes is to motivate youth to work on the environment from an early age.
1990 - After recommending a program to map the human genome, The National Research Council started the Human Genome Project officially in 1990. The mapping of the human genome is the key to advanced medicine. It is also helpful in the study of biology and the technical development of DNA analyzing.
1983 - Dian Fossey was one of the foremost primatologists in the world in her lifetime. She was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist. Her research on guerilla groups in the mountain forests of Rwanda paved her way to write e famous book; ‘Gorillas in the Mist’ in 1983.
2003 - The dream comes true in 2003 as the Human Genome Project was finally completed. Started 15 years earlier, this journey is proved to the longest and the most fruitful one. By 2001, scientists were able to find out a 90% sequence and in 2003 they completed 99% accurately. This project results in resolving 2.85 billion nucleotides among the 3 billion nucleotides and thus the scientists achieved the goal to find out Charles Darwin’s suspect that human characteristics are inherited.