Cosmology: First Star were Born Much Later Than Thought

When the Universe was few seconds old, photons were trapped in a dense, hot soup, consisted of electrons, neutrinos, and protons.

Cosmology: First Star were Born Much Later Than Thought

Cosmology: First Star were Born Much Later Than Thought


Scientists say our Universe is 13.8 billion years old. They have come to know about the approximate age by researching the comets, asteroid, plants and so many important other objects from our solar system, emission of light of stars and galaxies. The theory of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is one of the valid and major theories along with the Big Bang theory. And scientists say that the cosmic microwave background or CMB is the fossil light, that was created after the Big Bang theory, 380,000 years later. Because of the microwave wavelength, we can see the light today covering the whole sky.

A European institute Planck, research about the cosmic microwave background in between 2009 to 2013. They have found some unprecedented details about the ancient light. They found the temperature difference between the North and South poles. The temperature between the two sides was slightly different in the early cosmos. Based on this scientific theory, all of the future structures of the galaxies and the stars were made and we use them still now. 

They publish all the results in a large number of the next two years in scientific newspapers. By discovering the cosmic microwave background, scientists state a cosmological picture of our universe with more and greater accuracy. Planck released new and acceptable maps by measuring the cosmic microwave background. They have found the wave at high resolution over the sky. 

There is a similarity between the polarized light and the early universe cosmic microwave background. They both could be polarized when they vibrate in a preferred direction.

When the Universe was few seconds old, photons were trapped in a dense, hot soup, consisted of electrons, neutrinos, and protons. Because of the high density of protons, electron and neutrino light could not able to travel any significant distance. Electron and protons collided and made extremely foggy. The light could pass through only bumping into the electron. 

The universe and cosmos cooled slowly. They expanded the particles of the universe and photons grew farther apart. The universe became more stable and collisions happened less than before. After this, the photon was able to travel because it had enough room and they got freedom from the cosmic fog. Another consequence has happened and that is, the neutral atoms are made of photons and electron combinations.

François Bouchet of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France says, “The cosmic microwave background became polarization and starts to fluctuate across the sky from one place to another place, this is showing the reflection of that time of beginning the journey of our cosmos.”

From this theory, lots of parameters can be estimated like the age of our cosmos and the elements of our universe. The polarization theory of Planck’s institute states the standard cosmology picture by measuring the cosmic microwave background fluctuation of temperature. And then they started to find when the first star was born? Our universe was very different from today after the CMB released.

It took many years to create the first star but none of them was able to tell the approximate time when the star was formed. From the CMB, scientists came to know about the dark matter, dark energy and the normal matter of our cosmos. Before the Big Bang, the cosmos was very dark. It is called the “Dark Age” and this age was finished after the Big Bang. It took 550 million years to finish the Dark Age after the Big Bang, which is a minimum of 90 to 100 million years later than the previous thought. But it is so much smaller and negligible to the age of our universe which is around 14.8 billion years old. When the first star being formed and stats to shine, the “Dark Age” ended. And this is the latest and more acceptable theory, how the universe created and how stars were born. And when the light of star interacted with the fog, more atoms again back to their constituent particles proton and electron. This process is known as the “Epoch of Reionisation.” Now the new electrons can once again collide with the CMB light. So, we can measure our cosmos by measuring the most distant galaxies and quasars. The first star has no limit. The scientists are now studying the polarization of the Milky Way galaxy based on the foreground emission, dust, and gas that are traveling in the Milky Way galaxy.

Cosmos science is a very difficult task. None is 100 percent sure about the cosmos and the cosmology. But scientists do not stop their research. They are trying hard to reveal the cosmology theory. We hope one day scientists will be able to understand the secret of the universe.