Apollo astronaut’s moment and experiments on the Moon

Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. The first steps by humans on another planetary body were taken by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, 1969.

Apollo astronaut’s moment and experiments on the Moon

Apollo astronaut’s moment and experiments on the Moon


On 20 July 1969, a spaceflight named Apollo 11 first landed on the Moon surface with humans. Neil Armstrong was the commander and Buzz Aldrin was a lunar module pilot. When they were on the Moon, they had just two major goals. One is, get out from the spaceflight and make the first human foot mark on Moon. Another is collected rocks from the moon and carry them safely on Earth. 


To explore the moon’s surface, they use 80 hours on the moon surface. At that time, they collected different types of rock, photographed some mysteries part of the rock, and finished all the experiments manner. They also collect wind particles of solar and measured the seismic tremors of Moon. Spacecraft Apollo 11 left behind some machines such as seismometers powered by solar and a reflector array which paired with lasers on Earth could measure the distance between Moon to Earth.

After Apollo 11 mission scientists send 5 other spaceflights to the moon, Apollo 12 through 17 but Apollo 12 did not land on Moon. After Apollo 11 scientists use a more elaborate setup machine that astronauts left on the moon to research. Those machines were powered by nuclear batteries that produce electricity by radioactive decay. Some of those machines collected data for many years. The last machine shuttled down in 1977.

Scientists install thermometers on the moon surface by Apollo 17 and Apollo 15. And this project was very successful to spot Moon temperature. Those machines took the temperature of the moon from various depths and successfully send data on Earth. Scientists were started collecting data in 1974 and the notice some unusual temperature as the like temperature of the moon surface increased suddenly. Why moon surface temperature increased suddenly, scientists at that time could not explain. Niagara, a teacher of Texas Tech University in Lubbock examined all temperature data through 1977 to find out what is wrong and that is the reason for this. But Unfortunately, the disk that recorded temperature-related data was missing. The era of Apollo was a common problem because at the individual labs’ scientists were experiments with each data. Many experiment data never archived properly.

After searched a lot Nagihara and his team found the tape 440. By researching this tape at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Nagihara and his team found more temperature updates noted by scientists in the Apollo era. Niagara and his team pieced together a picture of lunar temperature between the time of recovered tapes and the memos. In 2018 Nagihara and his team say that one side of the lunar terrain is slightly darker than the other lunar terrain. The darker side is enough dark to absorb more sunlight and more sunlight warm the underlying ground.

And computer simulations also show that the moon surface is not heating up by its internal process.   

That time when Nagihara and other scientists researching old Apollo Data they have found, one old machine is still running on the moon surface, the reflector array powered by solar. This type of array placed on the Lunar surface by Apollo 15, 14 and 11, and two others placed by the Soviet Union. With the help of those reflectors, scientists measure the exact distance between Lunar and earth. Those reflector arrays sent leaser light from the moon surface to earth. Scientists calculate the distance by measuring the time of reflective light. With the help of the reflective light researcher notice, the moon is going 3.8 centimeters far per year. And the reflective light variation tall that, the Lunar orbit has a small core.

On the moon surface, many types of instruments, sensors, and machines are installed beside reflectors and thermometers. Those machines are measuring different types of data such as the Lunar magnetic field, chemical component, atmosphere and the dark side of the moon.  NASA’s scientists trying to recover more missed signals by using the old data. They are using more advanced computers and software to process old data. NASA also spotted moonquakes with the help of the Apollo seismometers, colleagues and weber say that the moon may tectonically active. By researching moonquakes, NASA and other agencies decide where to land the next spaceflight on the Moon.